Environment variables are a set of dynamic named values that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer.
They are part of the environment in which a process runs. For example, a running process can query the value of the TEMP environment variable to discover a suitable location to store temporary files, or the HOME or USERPROFILE variable to find the directory structure owned by the user running the process.
They were introduced in their modern form in 1979 with Version 7 Unix, so are included in all Unixoperating system flavors and variants from that point onward including Linux and OS X. From PC DOS 2.0 in 1982, all succeeding Microsoft operating systems including Microsoft Windows, and OS/2 also have included them as a feature, although with somewhat different syntax, usage and standard variable names.
In all Unix and Unix-like systems, each process has its own separate set of environment variables. By default, when a process is created, it inherits a duplicate environment of its parent process, except for explicit changes made by the parent when it creates the child. At the API level, these changes must be done between running fork and exec. Alternatively, from command shells such as bash, a user can change environment variables for a particular command invocation by indirectly invoking it via env or using the ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE=VALUE <command> notation. All Unixoperating system flavors, DOS, and Windows have environment variables; however, they do not all use the same variable names. A running program can access the values of environment variables for configuration purposes.
A station, in the context of New Zealand agriculture, is a large farm dedicated to the grazing of sheep and cattle. The use of the word for the farm or farm buildings date back to the mid-nineteenth century. The owner of a station is called a runholder.
Some of the stations in the South Island have been subject to the voluntary tenure review process. As part of this process the government has been buying out all or part of the leases. Poplars Station in the Lewis Pass area was purchased in part by the government in 2003. The Nature Heritage Fund was used to purchase 4000 ha for $1.89 million. Birchwood Station was bought in 2005 to form part of the Ahuriri Conservation ParkSt James Station was purchased by the Government in 2008.
Akitio Station, formerly 50,000 acres (200km2) located in the Southern North Island province of Wairarapa and host to the touring English Cricket team in the 20th Century.
Basel (/ˈbɑːzəl/ or /ˈbɑːl/; or less often used Basle;German:Basel pronounced[ˈbaːzəl]; French:Bâle[bɑl]; Italian:Basilea[baziˈlɛːa]; Romansh:Basilea[baziˈlɛːa]) is Switzerland's third most populous city (behind Zürich and Geneva) with about 195,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany. In 2014, the Basel agglomeration was the third largest in Switzerland with a population of 537,100 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland and an additional 53 in neighboring countries (municipal count as of 2000). The tri-national Basel metropolitan area has around 830,000 inhabitants in 226 municipalities.
Basel 4 is a proposed standard on capital reserves for banks, to mitigate against the risk of financial crisis. It is expected to follow the third Basel accords (Basel III) , and would require more stringent capital requirements and greater financial disclosure.
Basel 4 is likely to include:
Requiring banks to meet higher minimum leverage ratios;
Emphasising simpler or standardised models, rather than banks' internal models, for calculation of capital requirements;
More detailed disclosure of reserves and other financial statistics.
British banks alone may have to set aside another £50Bn of reserves to meet Basel 4 requirements.
Basel III's rules increased the amount of capital that banks must hold, and set a core tier 1 capital ratio of 7%. The technical implementation deadline for Basel III is 2019, but recent developments in the banking market have suggested that even stricter rules may be applied by a later framework, which has been dubbed "Basel 4". The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision released a consultative paper, seeking out views on the Committee's plan to change how capital requirements and market risks are calculated.